Magnum Photo: SYRIA. Damascus. Union between Syria and Egypt. Portrait of President of Egypt Gamal Abdel NASSER. 1958.
Gamal Abdel Nasser led the 1952 Egyptian revolution that overthrew the corrupt and ineffective monarchy of King Farouk. Nasser was born into a working-class family in Asyut province. His father was a postal clerk. Nasser graduated from the Royal Military Academy in Cairo and served in the Sudan. He fought in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War at Falluja, where Egyptian forces held out against Israel until the war's end. After the 1948 war, Nasser and other junior officers blamed King Farouk for the war's substandard weaponry and lack of military strategy.
Nasser was one of the founders of the secret Free Officers group that was determined to oust Farouk and set Egypt on a different path. Although the older and better-known Brigadier-General Muhammad Naguib was put forward to the public as the head of the officers' group, Nasser was in fact the acknowledged leader. He was known for carefully listening to all viewpoints and then making decisions. On July 22, 1952, the Free Officers overthrew the monarchy in a practically bloodless coup d'état. A Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) was established with Naguib as its head. Nasser and Naguib clashed over whether to keep a parliamentary system or to establish a one-party state with populist support, a course Nasser favored. The majority of the officers favored Nasser, and a single party, the Liberation Rally, was established in 1953. After a failed assassination attempt on Nasser in 1954, the Muslim Brotherhood, with whom Naguib had close ties, was banned, and Naguib was removed from power. A new constitution was implemented in 1956 and Nasser was elected president by a huge majority of Egyptian voters. He was twice reelected to the position. A highly charismatic figure and a brilliant speaker in colloquial Arabic, Nasser was extremely popular with the majority of Egyptians and among average Arabs everywhere.
Not an ideologue, Nasser was a pragmatic political leader who sought to develop Egypt economically and socially. He moved toward socialism and the Soviet Union after his requests for military aid had been rebuffed by the United States. His regime jailed members of both the Egyptian Communist Party and the Muslim Brotherhood on the right.
After attending the Bandung Conference in 1955, Nasser joined with Jawaharlal Nehru of India and Marshal Tito of Yugoslavia in championing positive neutralism, in which Third World nations would not forge solid alliances with either the United States or the Soviet Union in the cold war but would instead act in their own best interests. Neither of the superpowers liked this approach, but the United States was particularly hostile to it. Steering a neutral course, Nasser opposed the Western-led CENTO/Baghdad Pact and opposed Arab regimes such as the Hashemite monarchies in Iraq and Jordan and the conservative, extremely pro-Western Saudi Arabian monarchy.
Nasser also spoke of Egypt belonging to three circles: the Arab, African, and Islamic worlds. Under Nasser, Egypt became a center for African and Arab political leaders and students. Although he was personally a devout Muslim, Nasser was committed to secular government and persecuted Islamists, particularly the Muslim Brotherhood, which sought to establish a state based on Muslim religious law and practice.
Like all Arab leaders, Nasser supported the Palestinian cause and their right to self-determination. He permitted some fedayeen (self-sacrificers) guerrilla attacks from the Egyptian-administered Gaza Strip in Israel, but he also recognized the superiority of Israel's military. Consequently he initially sought, through back channels, to negotiate settlements to the conflict with Israel. Israel insisted on face-to-face negotiations, and the attempts all failed.
In 1956 after the United States had refused to grant aid for building the Aswān Dam, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal. The nationalization led to the 1956 Arab-Israeli War, in which Great Britain, France, and Israel jointly attacked Egypt. The war was a military loss for Egypt but a political victory after which Nasser became indisputably the most popular man in the entire Arab world.
Conservative pro-Western monarchies: Jordan and Saudi Arabia
During the so-called Arab cold war Nasser's influence dominated the liberal, progressive, and socialist governments in Syria and elsewhere, versus the conservative pro-Western monarchies, including Jordan and Saudi Arabia. In 1957, relations with King Saud from Saudi Arabia became antagonistic as the latter began to fear that Nasser's increasing popularity in Saudi Arabia was a genuine threat to the royal family's survival. Despite opposition from the governments of Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Lebanon, Nasser maintained his prestige among their citizens and those of other Arab countries. With the formation of the United Arab Republic of Egypt and Syria in 1958, Nasser perhaps reached the peak of his popularity.
Following the devastating military losses in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Nasser accepted responsibility and resigned. Massive and generally spontaneous public demonstrations calling for his return led him to resume the Egyptian presidency, but he never regained the unquestioning support throughout the Arab world that he had previously enjoyed.
In 1970 Nasser was called upon to mediate a truce between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and King Hussein of Jordan in the bloody war between the two. Shortly thereafter he suffered a massive heart attack, in part brought on by the tensions of the negotiation, and died in late September. Although Nasser was mistrusted and opposed in most of the West and Israel, millions of mourning Egyptians joined his funeral cortege. The legacy of Nasserism, secular pan-Arab nationalism, and state-directed socialism, spread throughout most of the Arab world during Nasser's lifetime, but declined and, except in Lebanon, largely diminished after his death.
July 17, 2012 – USA and Al Qaeda: Holy Alliance:
June 25, 2013 – Saudi Arabia: ‘Syrian rebels must be armed’:
November 7, 2013 – Syria: Saudi Arabia to spend millions to train new rebel force:
The Army Continues Special Operations against Terrorists
Feb 23, 2013
Units of the Armed Forces on Saturday inflicted heavy losses upon terrorist groups in a series of operations targeting their dens in Douma FARMS, Harasta, Zamalka and Erbin in Damascus Countryside.
SANA reporter quoted an official source in the province as saying that a terrorists' den was destroyed in the farms between Douma and Harasta with all the ammunition and weapons inside.
A number of terrorists were killed in the operation, while others were injured, added the source, noting that among the dead were terrorists Bilal Ghbeis, Mohammad al-Talla, Mohamad Arafeh and Mohammad al-Habboul, leader of an armed terrorist group.
Army units also targeted gatherings of terrorists in Zamalka and Erbin, destroying their vehicles which they used in their movement and transfer of weapons.
The operations resulted in killing a number of terrorists among whom Ahmad Hjeiko, Qarhaman Mashel and Omar Abdul-Rahman were identified.
Terrorists Targeted in Special Operations in Idleb
A unit of the armed forces carried out several accurate, special operations, destroying dens and hideouts of terrorists in Idleb countryside.
SANA reporter quoted a source in the province as saying that the army unit confronted the armed terrorist groups in the surroundings of Wadi al-Daif and other towns, inflicting heavy losses upon the terrorists and destroying their vehicles.
The source added that another army unit targeted gatherings of terrorists who were blocking roads, attacking citizens and looting private and public properties on Sarakeb-Idleb highway and Sarmin, killing a number of them and wounding many others.
A second army unit targeted hideouts of terrorists in al-Nairab, Khan al-Subul and Banesh, inflicting heavy losses upon them.
Army units Kill Terrorists in Homs Countryside
Units of the armed forces today carried out several qualitative operations against armed terrorist groups in al-Rastan, al-Zaafaran, Akrab, Tal Dahab and al-Houleh in Homs countryside.
A military source in Homs told SANA reporter that the operations led to the killing of many terrorists, among them Abdullah al-Hussein, Shamel al-Ahmad, Shuaib al-Qasem, Ridwan Snu, Naser Azouz in addition to destroying a mortar and two vehicles equipped with heavy machineguns.
Other army units destroyed seven missiles, a mortar, two missiles' launching-pads in Akrab, killing a number of terrorists. Malik al-Kurdi, Rashid Kokag, Abdul-Kareem Saad al-Din, Obeida al-Qatebi who was expert in bombing cars, were identified among the killed terrorists.
Mazen /H. Said
As a reminder: Obama signed a secret order authorizing U.S. support for Syrian terrorists seeking to depose Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and his government. Obama’s order, approved earlier this year and known as an intelligence “finding,” broadly permits the CIA and other U.S. agencies to provide support that could help the terrorists oust Assad. C.I.A. officers are operating secretly in southern Turkey. The weapons, including automatic rifles, rocket-propelled grenades, ammunition and some antitank weapons, are being funneled mostly across the Turkish border by way of a shadowy network of intermediaries including Syria’s Muslim Brotherhood and paid for by Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The United States is setting up joint military, intelligence and medical working teams with Israel, Turkey and Jordan.
Formed around 2500 BC, the Syrian civilization is one of the most ancient on earth, and is strategically placed along the eastern edges of the Mediterranean Sea at the doorway to Asia and the Middle East.
Damascus, the capital, historically called the Fragrant City, is believed to be the oldest continuously inhabited city on the planet, and to this day remains one of the most important cultural and political centers in the Arab world.
For endless centuries Syria was fought over and subsequently controlled by varied factions, including the Egyptian, Roman and Ottoman empires.
The Syrian economy struggled under Ottoman rule, and any attempts at rebuilding were destroyed by the Mongols.
After World War I ended, the Ottoman Turks were finally driven out, and the French influence began.
The French administered and exercised control of Syria until it finally gained its independence in 1946.
In the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Syria lost the Golan Heights to Israel, and since then, both countries have occasionally discussed its return to Syria.
Photo: Fighters against Ottoman Empire in Syria, 1916.
Some months ago, Obama signed a secret order authorizing U.S. support for Syrian terrorists and C.I.A. officers are operating secretly in southern Turkey. The weapons, including automatic rifles, rocket-propelled grenades, ammunition and some antitank weapons, are being funneled mostly across the Turkish border by way of a shadowy network of intermediaries including Syria’s Muslim Brotherhood and paid for by Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar.
The United States is setting up joint military, intelligence and 'medical' working teams with Israel, Turkey and Jordan.
On October 4, 2012, Adm. George Stavridis, the commander of US European Command (USEUCOM) and NATO’s Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), met with Chief of General Staff Gen. Necdet Ozel in Ankara. The meeting took place at General Staff headquarters but was only announced to the public in a statement released by the General Staff some days later. The talks were closed to the press and the statement did not elaborate on what Stavridis and Ozel discussed.
US broadcaster NBC News reported in July that the so called 'Free Syrian Army' had obtained two dozen surface-to-air missiles (man-portable air-defence systems known as MANPADS), delivered via Turkey.
It proves once again that the Turkish government, in cooperation of NATO, is arming groups for terrorist bombings in Syria.
By undermining the political stability and the economy of Syria, they hope to control the country which is located at the crossroads between Africa, Europe and the Middle East
President Obama, was the 2009 winner of the Nobel Peace Prize for "extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples".
As a reminder: In 2003 Turkey was being bitterly criticized in the US for 'failing to allow us combat troops to use Turkey as a launching pad to open a second front in northern Iraq'.
US offered Turkey its military technology to hunt down the PKK leaders...
Photo: Victim of an American drone attack in Afghanistan
October 3, 2012
'Iraq urges end to Turkey PKK attacks'
Iraq has called for an end to the presence of Turkish military forces on its land, demanding that Turkey stop its attacks on members of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) in northern Iraq.
Oct 18, 2012
'US envoy reveals secret assistance offer to Turkey in PKK fight'
The US ambassador to Turkey has revealed that Washington secretly offered Ankara to have an “anti-bin Laden” type of joint operation against a number of military leaders of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK)...
On Tuesday, Francis Ricciardone revealed to Turkish journalists that the US had offered Turkey its military technology to hunt down the PKK leaders.
However, the Turkish government turned down the offer, saying it would continue battling with the PKK “on the basis of its laws and experiences.”
The PKK has been fighting for an autonomous Kurdish region inside Turkey since the 1980s.
Ankara has carried out several military operations against the PKK in Iraq’s Kurdistan region.
Turkish Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan also confirmed on October 16 that he had rejected the offer on a rather technical basis.
Erdogan recalled the US operation near the Pakistani capital Islamabad in May 2011 that led to the death of Osama bin Laden.
“Bin Laden was caught in a house,” said the Turkish premier, adding, “But the struggle here is in mountainous geography.”
This is reportedly the second disclosed secret offer of assistance by the US.
October 29, 2012
'Turkish policeman, eight PKK members killed in clashes'
At least nine people, including one policeman, have been killed in clashes between police and the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) militants in Turkey’s southeastern province of Sirnak...
Heavy fighting erupted after PKK members attacked the building of Sirnak provincial government, a police department and a police checkpoint with automatic rifles and rocket-propelled grenades on Sunday.
Law enforcement agents have cordoned off the area and launched manhunt operations to arrest PKK members involved in the incident.
Meanwhile, Turkish troops backed by jets, launched an offensive against the Kurdish rebels in Sirnak.
Clashes between Turkish troops and PKK fighters have intensified in recent months.
Six Turkish soldiers and three PKK members were killed in overnight clashes along a highway in the remote province of Hakkari bordering Iraq and Iran.
PKK has been fighting for an autonomous Kurdish region inside Turkey since the 1980s. The conflict has left tens of thousands of people dead.
French troops in Algeria
Between 1954, when the Algerian uprising against French colonial rule broke out, and 1962, when Algeria became an independent republic, some two million French soldiers crossed the Mediterranean to fight against the FLN's (National Liberation Front) guerrillas in an operation that marked a generation. Most of these soldiers were conscripts. In Paris, the developing war in Algeria led to the fall of six prime ministers, the collapse of the IVth republic, the return of General de Gaulle to power at the head of the Vth republic -- a vehicle of his own creation -- and near civil war following an attempted right-wing coup in Algiers.
During the war, atrocities were committed on both sides, and after it, with the general amnesty declared at Evian as part of its negotiated settlement, many of these were officially forgotten. France turned to interior self-modernization, while Algeria began a process of nation-building under the tutelage of the victorious FLN.
More recently, however, there has been a move to disinter the past in the wake of recent, well-publicized revelations in France concerning the extent of human-rights violations, specifically the torture and murder of those suspected of being members or sympathizers of the FLN, by the French army in Algeria and by the authorities in France itself. In recent months both the French president, Jacques Chirac, and the prime minister, Lionel Jospin, have referred to these reports, mostly stressing the need to consider them in their historical context and talking of the need for "national healing" to take place. "Let history do its work," said Chirac, interviewed recently on the television channel TF1. Former generals have also appeared on television admitting that they used torture to interrogate suspects during the Algerian War.
With the official records of the period remaining largely closed, however, and with those committing them never having been held accountable either for their orders or for their acts, other voices have been a lot less diplomatic than have those of the political establishment.
French troops in Syria
In 1920, an independent Arab kingdom of Syria was established under king Faysal of the Hashemite family. His rule ended after few months, following the clash between Syrian forces and regular French forces at the battle of Maysalun. French troops occupied Syria later that year after the league of Nations put Syrian under the French mandate. With the fall of France in 1940, Syria came under the control of the Vichy Government until the British and Free French occupied the country in July 1941. Continuing pressure from Syrian nationalist groups forced the French to evacuate their troops in April 1946, leaving the country in the hands of a republican government that had been formed during the mandate.
Photo: French soldiers in Algeria
Harvard Gazette of September 24th, 2012:
... Murhaf Jouejati, a Syrian-born 'specialist on Middle East affairs', also condemned China, Iran, and Russia for sending military aid to support Assad. “The government of Russia is a partner in mass murder, and let history show that,” Jouejati said. Above all, he called for “human decency.”
Who's responsible for the terrorist acts and suffering of the Syrian people ?
1) Obama signed a secret order authorizing U.S. support for Syrian terrorists seeking to depose Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and his government. Obama’s order, approved earlier this year and known as an intelligence “finding,” broadly permits the CIA and other U.S. agencies to provide support that could help the terrorists oust Assad. C.I.A. officers are operating secretly in southern Turkey. The weapons, including automatic rifles, rocket-propelled grenades, ammunition and some antitank weapons, are being funneled mostly across the Turkish border by way of a shadowy network of intermediaries including Syria’s Muslim Brotherhood and paid for by Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The United States is setting up joint military, intelligence and medical working teams with Israel, Turkey and Jordan.
2) British Foreign Secretary William Hague said Britain would step up its support for the armed groups in Syria, providing them with an additional £5 million (US$7.8 million). The money is used for bomb attacks in Syria.
3) An official source told a SANA reporter that the seized arms included Nato sniper rifles, machineguns, hunting rifles, explosive devices of various weights, devices for remote control detonation and an amount of batteries and electrical wires.
4) Belgian Senator Nele Lijnen said that she intends to launch a discussion at the Belgian Senate regarding the fact that the terrorists in Syria possess weapons made in Belgium.
5) The Swiss Authorities announced that they are investigating into information published by Sonntags Zeitung newspaper about hand grenades used by armed terrorist groups in Syria.
6) The weapons and military equipment recently discovered and seized by the Syrian Army in Idlib province proves NATO's arms and logistic support for terrorists in Syria.
7) The seized weapons in Salqain district in Idlib included 7.26 guns along with other weapons as well as boxes of gunshots with the words "NATO BALL" carved on them.
8) The Lebanese army intelligence has seized a large quantity of wea Lutfallah II container pons hidden inside cars aboard an Italian ship at Tripoli port, north of Lebanon, Lebanese security sources told Al-Manar TV.
9) This comes just days after the Lebanese Army Marines confiscated Lutfallah II arms shipment off the Lebanese port of Batoun while it was carrying 300,000 pounds of weapons within three containers. Reports said the cargo ship, which was flying the flag of Sierra-Leone, had left Libya and was bound to Syria.
10) Lebanese terrorist Mohammad Hussein Fares confessed to participating in smuggling weapons, militants and journalists into Syria and committing terrorists acts against Syrians.
11) Fares said that they smuggled assault rifles, RPG rounds, sniper rifles, LAW missiles, machineguns and cases of ammo, delivering them to Amoun, with al-Jarban coming later to distribute them among terrorists.
12) US, Qatar and Saudi Arabia are arming AL-QAEDA Terrorists to commit Terrorism in Syria
13) Over 30,000 various weapons have been channelled to Syria since unrest flared up there in April last year, Amin Khteit says. The overall amount of explosives makes up 300 tons. The deliveries were made by Qatar and Saudi Arabia. They depend on the United States, which is making every effort to overpower Syria.
14) The authorities seized weapons smuggled from Turkey in Tal Abyad area on the Syrian-Turkish borders in Raqqa countryside.
15) A Turkish parliamentarian has stressed that Turkish ambulances are transporting weapons to terrorist groups in Syria, expressing their opposition to Ankara's policies on the Syrian case...
Armed Forces Storm Terrorists' Hideouts in Aleppo, Homs and Hama... Tunnels Used by Terrorists Found in Damascus Countryside
Sep 06, 2012 - PROVINCES, (SANA) - The Syrian armed forces on Thursday destroyed a number of terrorists' hideouts and bases in several areas in the city of Aleppo.
A source in the province told SANA reporter that the armed forces carried out an operation in which they destroyed terrorists' bases near the Establishment of Water, al-Orobeh Club and al-Hajjar Mosque in Bustan al-Basha area and Rotana Hall in Suleiman al-Halabi area.
The source added that a unit of the armed forces destroyed a car loaded with ammunition in Masaken Hanano in the city.
Armed Forces Pursue Terrorists in Basatin Bala, Beit Naim, Housh al-Homsi, Marj al-Sultan and Deir al-Asafir Towns in Damascus Countryside
The Syrian armed forces pursued on Thursday armed terrorist groups in Basatin Bala, Beit Naim, Housh al-Homsi and Marj al-Sultan towns in Damascus countryside.
the armed forces clashed with the terrorists and eliminated several of them, seized large amounts of weapons and dismantled a number of explosive devices.
Meanwhile, the competent authorities discovered tunnels used by terrorist mercenaries in Deir al-Asafir town in Damascus Countryside and eliminated a number of gunmen who were hiding in the tunnels.
Explosives and mines dismantled in Said al-Dawla
The Army Engineering Units today dismantled a number of explosives and mines planted by armed terrorist groups at al-Souk area in Saif al-Dawla in Aleppo.
A source in Aleppo told SANA reporter that the terrorists escaped.
Armed Forces Storm Terrorists' Hideout in Homs
A unit from the armed forces clashed with mercenary terrorists in Burj Qa'a village in al-Houleh in Homs, killing and injuring many of them.
Meanwhile, a unit from the armed forces destroyed the hideout of an armed terrorist group behind al-Khandaq Street in Bad Hood neighborhood in the city of Homs.
The hideout was used as a base and operation room to plan attacks against citizens and law-enforcement forces in the neighborhood.
A source in the province told SANA reporter that the clash resulted in killing and injuring a large number of terrorists gathering in the hideout.
The source added that the authorities confronted a terrorist attack against the law-enforcement members of a checkpoint at the entrance of al-Hosn village, inflicting heavy losses upon the terrorists.
It said that terrorists Badr Issa al-Janein, nicknamed Abu Odai, and Ziad Hassan Mirza were identified among the dead.
In the same context, the authorities clashed with terrorists who attacked law-enforcement forces in al-Nizariyeh village in the countryside of Homs.
SANA reporter quoted a source in the province as saying that three terrorists were killed and four others were injured in the clash.
The authorities confronted an armed terrorist group which attacked the law-enforcement forces in the fields of Deir Baalbeh in the countryside of Homs.
An official source told SANA reporter that the operation resulted in inflicting heavy losses upon the terrorists.
Authorities Storm Terrorists' Hideout in Hama
In Hama province, the authorities, in cooperation with inhabitants, stormed a terrorists' hideout in the area of Tariq Halab al-Qadeem in Hama.
An official source told SANA reporter that the raid resulted in killing five terrorists and arresting five others.
Authorities Pursue Terrorists in the Countryside of Idleb
The authorities in Idleb continued the pursuit operations in the countryside of the province in response to the appeals of the inhabitants to eliminate the fleeing terrorist groups which terrified citizens, cut off roads and attacked service facilities in Harem area, killing and injuring many of their members.
Meanwhile, the authorities chased terrorist Abdel-Aziz al-Jamal who fired on a checkpoint for law-enforcement members in al-Dbeit neighborhood in Idleb city and killed him.
6 Cars for Terrorists Destroyed, Explosive Devices Dismantled in Daraa
Authorities pursued fleeing terrorists in Tal Shehab in the countryside of Daraa, destroying their 6 cars.
A source in the province said that the authorities also dismantled a number of explosive devices and seized large amount of C-4 explosive material and stolen medicine.
Armed Forces Clash with Terrorist Groups in Daraa Countryside
An army unit clashed with an armed terrorist group near Nasib Border Point in Daraa countryside and eliminated a number of terrorists.
The army unit also seized the weapons of the terrorists which included Russian rifles, US sniper rifles and ammunitions.
In Daraa al-Balad, the competent authorities clashed with an armed terrorist group and killed several terrorists.